Togo and Climate Change

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Adaptation and Mitigation to Climate change

Togo is a country whose emissions per capita of Titus order  0.006 g. However, the Government intends to
implement elements of environmental and sectoral  policy in order to contribute to international mitigation targets to  global GHG emissions.  The lack of data and the low reliability of the data available led the national experts team to only  consider in this first study the energy sector and the sector of Lands and Forestry which are also the largest sectors of GHG emissions at the national level. Mitigation as proposed will reduce  13%  of emissions by 2025 which is , a decrease of  3685 Gg CO2-e in 2025.  The study helped analyze several options, the most workable would be the establishment of a forest protection program and the reforestation of the wasteland. This option would help absorb all national emissions up to 2040 and have a potential additional sequestration of up to
73,945 Gg of CO2, or about 250% of national emissions in 1995.

 

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Climate Change Impacts on Togo

 

Even though Africa’s contribution to global warming is really low compared to other developed countries, it will suffer from global warming just as the developed countries.  In general, there will be an increase in the drought with drier subtropical regions  warming more than the moister regions causing a decrease  of the annual rainfall and some anomalies such as large changes in the rainfall in the southern regions. The Atlantic is warming as well (1 to 2°C) in the gulf of guinea and by 3°C in the southwest coast. Climate modelling is more concentrated in the southern region of the continent.   The surface temperature also increases (3 to 4°C ).  As the temperature, the precipitation also is impacted by global warming in Africa. There is  an increase in the precipitation causing an increase of rainfall in south and east Africa.

Africa is the continent that will suffer most of global warming and climate change. It will mainly be affected on the agricultural level causing more famine all over the continent. There will be a decrease of farmland due to dryness which will cause a decrease in the  food supplies.  Also, the sea level rise will affect people living on the coast like my hometown Lome.  The key risks of global warming in the African continent will lead to a decrease in water resources  as the drought is increasing. The climate will be affected by extreme temperature, the rise of the sea-level with warming and drying trends. The productivity of the continent will be reduced and associated with heat and disease damages. There will be extremes precipitations as well.

Warming regions all over Africa have increased and the mean annual temperature has increased for about 2°C. The ecosystem is already being affected and will increase. The water availability and agricultural system will be affected causing food production to be decreased. Health problems will be expected as well.

One of the most interesting threat to my country is the sea-level rise. The sea is advances with great steps towards the Togolese coast but nothing concrete is done by the government to fight against it.  A small village named Kossi Agbavi located in the southeast of Lome (the capital) is really suffering from sea-level rise. In less than 15 years, the sea took over 500 meters of the village’s land. The villagers full of disarray and distress don’t know who to talk to anymore. A lot of talking with the leaders remained without any help while the sea is still taking over the land. The recent target of  the sea was a cemetery where victims of a tragic accident were buried few years ago. It is not secret that dead people are part of some African beliefs and we grant them a lot of importance and respect. The sea is not likely to stop advancing towards the coast and with global warming, it is going to speed up. Something needs to be done. imageMer-menace-village[1]

 

The first picture is an overview of the city of Lome and it shows how close the sea is to the city. The second pictures shows a former beach called Ramatou which was destroyed by the sea.


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Togo’s contribution to climate change

keeling curve

real total carbon

The biggest CO2 emission source for Togo is liquid. The second source is cement and the third one is Bunker. It’s really surprising that from 1950 to 2010, there’s no emission coming from gases in Togo.

Togo stated emitting significant amount of CO2 in year 1978. As the graph shows it, there’s a huge increase in the CO2 emissions by liquid.  Togo became independent in 1960 and therefore a lot of factories were being built and started working in the late 60s after the country’s independence, which explains the increase of the CO2 emissions.   There was an oil refinery built in the south of the country before 1978 which helped a lot on the economic level and explains more why the increase in the CO2 emissions.

The most recent per capita value for my country (2010) is 0,07 metric tons of carbon. Togo’s value is really lower than US’ value. It represents 1,5 % of US’ value.  The US have a way higher per capita value than Togo’s because they have a higher CO2 emission than Togo and the United States is  bigger than Togo.

Togo’s rank is 189 and the United States’ rank is 12. There is a huge difference between the two countries. I think Togo’s rank is reasonable because we emit a really small amount of CO2 compared to developed country as China or US.

As the total carbon emission  graph  above shows it, China is the country that emits carbon dioxide the most followed by the United States. Togo is a small emitter of carbon dioxide so it’s really down on the graph compared to these two countries.  In 2010, China was the biggest emitter of carbon dioxide. On a per capita basis, a Chinese citizen i more at fault for emitting CO2 than an American citizen.

The total CO2 emissions for all the countries starting from 1900 are:

China: 41257833,5

US: 97072700,6

India: 11407871,3

USSR: 30597879

Russia: 9605052,16

Canada: 7615357,09

Japan: 1391o128,9

Australia: 4090977,81

Qatar: 304549

Zimbabwe: 166624

United Kingdom: 15857586

Brazil: 3223736,47

Togo: 10404

Cumulatively, the US is responsible for the most CO2 emissions.

China’s carbon dioxide emission represents  42,5 %  (which is less than 50%) of the US’ carbon dioxide emissions and India’s CO2 emissions represents only 11,8%  (less than the firth) of the US’ CO2 emissions.

The Keeling curve and this graph seem to have a similarity in shape which is the  upward trend. Emissions are different than concentrations in a way that emissions are just gases released in the atmosphere while concentrations are formed by  the density of a gas.